Main article: Province of New Jersey Map showing the borders of West New Jersey (left) and East New Jersey (right)King Charles II renamed the land west of the Hudson River New Jersey and gave the region between New England and Maryland to his brother, the Duke of York James II of England, as a proprietary colony. The Duke of York never governed the colony himself. [12][17], The Middle Colonies political groups began as small groups with narrowly focused goals. Constant poverty in Scotland caused a large migration in the middle of the 18th century. A system in Dutch colonial New York in which vast grants of land were given to investors, who in turn rented the lands to tenant farmers. In 1665, the Concession and Agreement was written in an effort to entice settlers to New Jersey. The middle colonies were extremely diverse in their demographics. [15] In 1701, after he had troubles governing the ethnically diverse Delaware territory, Penn agreed to allow them a separate colonial assembly. [5], Main article: Province of Pennsylvania Chester Courthouse in Pennsylvania was built in 1724, King Charles II granted the land for the Pennsylvania Colony to William Penn on March 4, 1681 as payment for a debt the crown owed his family. The Congress had Royal Governor William Franklin arrested on June 15, declaring him "an enemy to the liberties of this country". The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies' prosperity. Map of the British Colonies in North America 1763-1775 [22], German immigrants favored the Middle Colonies. Colonies in Northern America. [14] When William Penn received his land grant of Pennsylvania in 1681, he received the Delaware area from the Duke of York, and dubbed them "The Three Lower Counties on the Delaware River". In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch established the patroon system, which resembled a feudal aristocracy governing vast land grants. Below are the original thirteen colonies, separated into three groups based on location: New England Colonies, Middle Colonies, and Southern Colonies. The Pennsylvania Assembly took this opportunity to request expanded power for elected officials, led by David Lloyd. While both colonies were largely English, the Middle Colonies of Pennsylvania and New York had more nationalities in them due to their religious tolerance. [2] James II later granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had been loyal to him through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton. They were noted for tight-knit religious communities, which were often Lutheran. The Middle Colonies had rich soil, allowing the area to become a major exporter of wheat and other grains. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. The Middle Colonies shared the fertile land of the Southern Colonies and many large fields of wheat could be found and they shared the industry of timber and fishing. Characteristics of Colonial Regions: Middle Colonies •Geography & Economy –Good Land to be Cleared, Three Major Rivers (Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna), Good Harbors –“Breadbasket” of the Colonies, trade in foodstuffs, including the Triangle Trade •Demographics –1700: Twice as many people lived in New England than the Middle Colonies It examines not only “high” matters of theology and leadership, but also elements of faith closer to the experience of the masses of worshippers. Demographics in the colonies: Both the Chesapeake and Southern colonies were made up of a majority of single, young, white men who worked as indentured servants. 1610 350 (all in Virginia) 1620 2,302 (Virginia and Plymouth Plantation) [8] Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon became the royal colony's first governor. [10] Penn wrote the Frame of Government of Pennsylvania before departing for the colony, which called for religious tolerance towards many groups, including the Religious Society of Friends and local natives. Munsee inhabited the Highlands, Hudson Valley, and northern New Jersey, while Minquas, also known as the Susquehannocks, lived west of the Zuyd River along and beyond the Susquehanna River. [2][3] The colony's land was periodically granted to various proprietors and split into the Province of New York and the Province of Pennsylvania. Middle Colonies Facts The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. The colonies all had similar constitutions, legal systems, and political systems in place. New England, on the other hand, used the teachings of the church to control the government. However, upon learning of the constitution, James II declared it void.[3]. [18], The Middle Colonies were generally run by Royal or Proprietary Governors and elected Colonial Assemblies. All boys learned a skill or trade. [12] In 1704, Dutch land given to Penn by the Duke of York separated and once again became part of the Delaware Colony. He instead appointed governors, councils, and other officers to run the government. In May 1688 the province became part of the Dominion of New England. This land grant would become the Province of New Jersey.[4][5]. This essay presents an overview of the diversity of the religious experience of the inhabitants of the Middle Colonies between 1680 and 1730, largely in terms of denominations broadly defined. Area dominated by larger farms than N.E., smaller than the S.; still there is an emphasis on subsistence rather than cash crops. The British captured much of the area in its war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. The Southern Colonies were an Oligarchy, which meant that wealthy plantation owners controlled the government since they could pay for their expenses. On March 18, 1674, after encountering difficulty collecting the taxes, Lord Berkeley sold his share in the colony to Edward Byllinge, a Quaker businessman from London. The industry and farming skills they brought with them helped solidify the Middle Colonies prosperity. Slavery in the British colonies Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. In Pennsylvania, sawmills and grist mills were abundant, and the textile industry grew quickly. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania. *The Middle Colonies were part of the 13 original colonies.The colonies included in the Middle Colonies were: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. *The Middle Colonies were known as the "breadbasket" because of the large amounts barley, rye, and other grains that were grown there.The Middle Colonies produced more food than the New England or Southern Colonies. [16] Broad navigable rivers of relaxed current like the Susquehanna River, the Delaware River, and the Hudson River attracted diverse business. Except for the Dutch in New York, the English population had managed to maintain or impose their institutions on all other competing cultures. Look for important similarities and differences. John Peter Zenger was arrested for writing against the royal governor of New York. The chart below shows the total population of Britain’s colonies from the founding of Jamestown, Va., in 1607 to the 1790 census, the first census of the U.S. government. One important event that happened in the Middle Colonies during the colonial period was the Zenger Trial in 1735. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery to New Netherland in 1625. Despite Quaker opposition to slavery, by 1730, colonists had brought about 4,000 slaves into Pennsylvania. Other groups included the Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, Scots Highlanders, and Huguenots. The Amish; those people of German origin who settled in the British Middle Colonies in the Americas prior to 1800. A Colonial Assembly convened in October 1683, making New York the last colony to seat an assembly. The partly unglaciated Middle Colonies enjoyed fertile soil vastly different from the nearby New England Colonies, which contained more rocky soil. During this time, many American Indians were displaced. Except where noted, content and user contributions on this site are licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 with attribution required. In 1773, Arthur St. Clair ordered the arrest of a Virginian officer commanding troops against armed settlers loyal to Pennsylvania. They were unusual, however, for their degree … These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. Fur trappers moved along these rivers, and there was enough flow to enable milling with water wheel power. The New England Colonies were a theocracy, which meant that the church controlled the government.The Middle Colonies had their government and church separated. Estimated population in the Colonies as of the year 1700. [14] Delaware expelled the royal officials in 1775 and became part of the United States of America. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. The Middle colonies consisted of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware. The First Great Awakening invigorated religiosity and helped stimulate the growth of Congregational, Methodist and Baptist churches. For example, in New York, any foreigner professing Christianity was awarded citizenship, which made for a diverse (albeit largely Christian) populace. The first Dutch settlements in the New York area first appeared around 1613. With the new arrivals came various religions which were protected in the Middle Colonies by written freedom of religion laws. Royal governors were arrested or overthrown on more than one occasion, most notably when New Jersey arrested its governor and during Leisler's Rebellion in New York. In the middle colonies, where, according to the Gazette, about half the adults could sign their names, colonial leaders agreed that education was important but were not concerned with providing it. Richard Nicolls served as the first governor of New York. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. The colony also became a major producer of pig iron and its products, including the Pennsylvania long rifle and the Conestoga wagon. When the Duke of York James II became the King of England, New York became a royal province. The Middle Colonies held a population of about 65,000, compared to New England's 120,000 and the Southern Colonies' 77,000. In an early attempt to encourage European settlement, the New Jersey legislature enacted a prohibitive tariff against imported slaves and in favor of European indentured servitude. Growing unrest in the Middle Colonies eventually led the region to become the meeting place for the Continental Congress, and a center for revolution. Society in the middle colonies was far more varied, cosmopolitan and tolerant than in New England. However, the death rate was very high in these colonies as many servants died before they were “acclimatized” to the region. As we know, New York had a mixed colony of settlers. After Bacon's Rebellion, the Chesapeake and Southern colonies moved towards using enslaved laborers brought from West Africa. [3] The Dutch would later recapture the colony in July 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, but gave the colony back to the English in the Treaty of Westminster in exchange for Suriname. When the English took direct control of the Middle Colonies around 1664, many Quakers from Rhode Island had already been pushed into the region by Puritans, while Episcopalian businessmen settled in Philadelphia and New York City. The 13 Colonies. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Demographics/population characteristics The population of Delaware was not extremely different, the colonies consisted of English, Dutch, and Swedish settlers.The majority of the colony spoke English. Main article: Delaware ColonyDelaware changed hands between the Dutch and Swedes between 1631 and 1655. While some Welsh colonists like Roger Williams, left to found Rhode Island, Anne Hutchinson founded a seed settlement in New York. [11] From 1692 to 1694, revolution in England deprived Penn of the governance of his colony. The publication of the Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 by locally-elected revolutionaries concluded the history of the Colony and began the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The New England colonies consisted of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. This tolerance was unusual and distinct from other British colonies. Farms flourished and craftsmen established successful businesses. [24] Other groups included the French Huguenots, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Swiss, and Scots Highlanders.[25]. Colonists were required to pay annual quit-rent taxes. The Middle Region included the colonies of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. [13] When Henry Sloughter became the new governor in March 1691, the rebellion was crushed and its leader, Jacob Leisler was arrested, tried, and executed for treason. There was four colonies known as the middle colonies. [9] On July 2, 1776, New Jersey enacted the New Jersey State Constitution, soon after having empowered delegates to the Continental Congress, on June 21, to join in a declaration of independence. Demographics of the Middle Colonies. In 1732, the 13 colonies were complete. Farms in the Middle Colonies were anywhere between 50 and 150 acres with a house, barn, yard and fields. Demographics in the colonies Both the Chesapeake and Southern colonies were made up of a majority of single, young, white men who worked as indentured servants. In 1683, a law was passed that all children must be taught to read and write and be trained in a useful trade. Families generally held and worked plots of between 40 and 160 acres. The population of the American Colonies, until the end of the 17th century, was almost entirely English. [6] The first governor appointed in this way was Philip Carteret, who founded Elizabethtown. As a consequence, early settlements of Germans from many different sects concentrated in the Middle Colonies. Map of the United States: Battle Sites 1689-1945. Under his guidance, Pennsylvania functioned smoothly and grew rapidly. The middle colonies were enriched by the culture of people from all over Europe, including Quakers, Scots, Irish, Dutch, French, Danes, Norwegians, Swedes, and more. Deep water allowed for numerous entries … Most were house servants in Manhattan, or farmworkers on Dutch estates. The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. Most were from the West Indies (a little more than 75%) while as … Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. https://theamericanhistory.fandom.com/wiki/The_Middle_Colonies?oldid=4248. Pennsylvanian revolutionary sentiment continued to grow, and Philadelphia, the largest city in America, soon became the meeting place of the Continental Congress. [7] This sale divided New Jersey into East Jersey and West Jersey; however, the border between the two was not agreed upon until the Quintipartite Deed in 1676. Americans have often prided themselves on their rich diversity. So too did views on the Native Americans who shared their land. Although the Swedes and the Dutch fought over the land in the 1630s through the ultimately the Dutch claimed the land, calling it New Netherland. Many Middle Colony constitutions guaranteed freedom of religion and forbade taxation without representation. The lumber and shipbuilding industries enjoyed success in the Middle Colonies, and Pennsylvania saw moderate success in the textile and iron industry. [26], Many British Middle colonists were Quakers. Similarities between north and south colonies America is considered as a land of diversity and peace since it was established, the diversity and peace is evident during the period when the first English settlers came to America . The Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than elsewhere in British North America and were somewhat more socially tolerant. Both the poor and the middle class immigrated as indentured servants. Because of the large grain exports resulting from this soil, the colonies came to be known as the Bread Basket Colonies. The Middle Colonies also practiced trade like New England, but typically they were trading raw materials for manufactured items. Located in the middle of the Atlantic seaboard, their economies combined the industry of the North with the agriculture of the South. These industries, along with the presence of deep river estuaries, led to the appearance of important ports like New York and Philadelphia. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres, owned by the family that worked it. The Middle Colonies had the highest ratio of churches to population of the three sections of colonial America. They were erroneously labeled the Pennsylvania Dutch (the German word for German is "Deutsch"), and comprised one-third of the population by the time of the American Revolution. By 1780, about 17% of the population in New York were descendants of Dutch settlers; the rest were mostly English with a wide mixture of other Europeans and about 6% Africans. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. They were also the most religiously diverse part of the British Empire, with a high degree of tolerance. Nowhere was that diversity more evident in pre-Revolutionary America than in the middle colonies of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. 1610 350 (all in Virginia) 1620 2,302 (Virginia and Plymouth Plantation) 1630 4,646 1640 26,634 The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. By 1685 its population was almost 9,000. The Middle Colonies were explored by Henry Hudson on a journey into the Hudson River and Delaware Bay in 1609. Reference Maps on the American Revolution 1775-1783. The most common solution was indentured servitude of young whites. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. Penn, upon visiting the colony in 1669 and 1701, eventually agreed to allow their Charter of Privileges to be added to the constitution. The chart below shows the total population of Britain’s colonies from the founding of Jamestown, Va., in 1607 to the 1790 census, the first census of the U.S. government. A constitution was drafted and passed on October 30, 1683, giving the colonists many rights, including the rights to taxation without representation. [1] In the 1660s, the English largely conquered this land from the Dutch, renaming the area New York after the Duke of York, James II. Identify the cultural groups that made up the Middle Colonies. [4], The Provincial Congress of New Jersey, made up of elected delegates, formed in January 1776 to govern the colony. To learn more about the history of this period, have a look at the following books: The Thirteen Colonies; The History of the Thirteen Colonies of North America 1497-1763; A … Thus, the definition of the Middle Colonies sometimes changed and overlapped with Rhode Island's colonial boundaries. Much of the area was part of the New Netherland until the British exerted control over the region. The American History Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. Beginning in 1609, Dutch traders explored and established fur trading posts on the Hudson River , Delaware River , and Connecticut River … English Catholics, Scotch Irish Presbyterians, German Lutherans and sectarians, Dutch Reformed, and Anglicans were well represented. However, the Middle Colonies, and especially Pennsylvania, had a degree of religious tolerance far greater than other British colonies. [20], The Middle Colonies tended to mix aspects of the New England and Southern Colonies. The Dutch maintained control of Delaware until 1664, when Sir Robert Carr took New Amstel for the Duke of York, renaming it New Castle. These colonies were created to be more tolerant to various religious beliefs, and the population grew to include a variety of backgrounds such as Italian, Germans, Dutch, French, Danes, Swedish, Norwegians, Poles, and Portuguese. Demarcated at the 42nd parallel north and 39th parallel north, Pennsylvania was bordered by the Delaware River and the colonies of New York, Maryland, and New Jersey. New York's charter and constitution were reinstated soon after. These coalitions eventually grew into diverse and large political organizations, evolving especially during the French and Indian War. In April 1775, American patriots formed the New York Provincial Congress to replace the assembly. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant others ownership of the land which would become the Province of New Jersey and the Province of Pennsylvania. Demographics of the Middle Colonies. However, by the mid-eighteenth century, black slaves comprised twelve percent of the population of New York. Four of the 13 colonies were located in the area that is still known as New England. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. [20], Both William Penn and the Lords Baltimore encouraged Irish Protestant immigration, hoping they could obtain indentured servants to work on their estates and on colonial developments. HOME - HISTORY MAPS - American COLONIES: POPULATION 1775. These colonies were the Province of New Hampshire, the Providence of Massachusetts Bay, the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, and the Connecticut Colony. New York's initial possession of parts of Maine ensured a close relationship with other New England colonies like Vermont and a continuing New England influence in the colony. Abundant forests attracted both the lumbering and shipbuilding industries to the Middle Colonies. The Southern Region, also known as the Chesapeake Colonies, included the Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. American Indian tribes had long occupied the area that was conquered as the British Middle Colonies. [14] A Deputy of the Duke governed Delaware from 1664 to 1682. Philadelphia and New York became well-known trading centers, with Philadelphia in particular becoming an important shipbuilding center. Pennsylvania became a leading exporter of wheat, corn, rye, hemp, and flax,[12] making it the leading food producer in the colonies, and later states, between the years of 1725 and 1840. Other important industries including printing, publishing, the related industry of papermaking. There was a brisk business in trade. [8] Finally, in 1738, King George II appointed a separate governor, Lewis Morris, to run New Jersey. Landholdings were generally farms of 40 to 160 acres (16–65 hectares), owned by the family that worked it. The Middle Colonies included Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. Rhode Island was not initially counted as part of New England, having been excluded from the New England Confederation, but later joined the Dominion of New England. Main article: Province of New York. Governor William Tryon and all royal officials were forced from the colony on October 19, 1775. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch patroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe. The Middle Colonies were the most ethnically diverse British colonies in North America, with settlers coming from all parts of Europe—many as indentured servants. Once colonization had begun, the Middle Colonies were more ethnically diverse than the other British colonial regions in North America and tended to be more socially tolerant. The United States Declaration of Independence ended their colonial status. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland in western Germany. These tribes included the Mohawk, Mahican, Algonquian Lenape, Wecquaesgeek, Hackensack, Raritan, Canarsee, and Tappan. The Scots-Irish also began immigrating to the Middle Colonies in waves after 1717. European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. While the Middle Colonies had far more industry than the Southern Colonies, it still did not rival the industry of New England. On April 15, 1702, Queen Anne united West and East Jersey into one Royal Colony, the Province of New Jersey. They primarily pushed farther into the western frontier of the colonies, where they repeatedly confronted American Indians. In many ways, Pennsylvania and Delaware owed their initial success to William Penn. [11] As a proprietary colony, Penn governed Pennsylvania, yet its citizens were still subject to the English crown and laws. In New York's Hudson Valley, however, the Dutch poltroons operated very large landed estates and rented land to tenant farmers. German immigration greatly increased around 1717, and many immigrants began coming from the Rhineland. The lack of a standardized government sponsored church led the Middle Colonies to be more religiously diverse than the other American colonial regions. The colonies were divided into three regional areas; these included, the New England colonies known as the northern colonies, the middle colonies, and Following the American Revolution, the Middle Colonies became the states of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Delaware. The Middle Colonies also raised livestock and exported beef and pork. It was established by William Penn as a haven for Quakers in the New World. Southern colonies were made up of a mix of indentured servants, wealthy elite, … European ethnic groups as manifold as English, Swedes, Dutch, Germans, Scots-Irish and French lived in closer proximity than in any location on continental Europe. However by the 1700's about 20% of New York's population was slaves. In 1665, the Province of New Jersey split from New York; however, the New York-New Jersey Line War continued until the final borders were decided in 1769, and approved by the legislatures and the King in 1772 and 1773 respectively. All boys learned a skill or trade. Indentured servitude was especially common in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York in the 18th century, though few such servants worked in agriculture. The Pennsylvania Gradual Abolition Act of 1780 was the first attempt to abolish slavery in the colonies and what would become the United States. From 1701 to 1765, colonists skirmished in the New York-New Jersey Line War over disputed colonial boundaries. Non-British colonists included Dutch Calvinist, Swedish Lutherans, Palantine Mennonites, and the Amish.[27]. This document provided religious freedom, no taxes without assembly approval, and a governor appointed by the proprietors. As of early 2017, the US population is just shy of 325 million people, a 130X increase over 241 years. Civil unrest in Europe and other colonies saw an influx of immigrants to the Middle Colonies in the 18th century. The Middle Colonies were not as cohesive as the New England colonies because colonists in this region were not united by single religion or code of beliefs. [20], Labor was always in short supply. Many great men would come from the Middle Colonies.