As a precaution if the pilot had resorted to emergency boost, he had to report this on landing and it had to be noted in the engine log book. Soon after this Supermarine was contracted to convert 30 Spitfires to take the cannon armed wing; 19 Squadron received the first of these in June 1940 and by 16 August 24 cannon armed Spitfires had been delivered. [75], N3297 became the power-plant development airframe, the wings were replaced with standard Type A and the aircraft was delivered to Rolls-Royce at Hucknall. [41], From November 1940, a decision was taken that Supermarine would start producing light-alloy covered ailerons which would replace the original fabric covered versions. REG: VH-RAF (CASA Australia) CATEGORY: Limited Category. After the first few flights K5054 was returned to the factory, reappearing about 10 days later with an overall gloss pale blue-grey finish. Spitfire XVIe TE392. The Supermarine Spitfire is a single-engine single-seat fighter aircraft produced by the British manufacturer Supermarine Aviation Works (Vickers) Ltd, later the Supermarine Division of Vickers-Armstrongs (Aircraft) Ltd. Diese Modelle wurden von den Jagdstaffeln bis Juni 1942 verwendet. In addition, some Spitfires of one mark or variant may have been modified to another; for example, several of the first Mk VBs were converted from Mk IBs; the first Mk IXs were originally Mk VCs, converted, in some instances, by Rolls-Royce at their Hucknall facility. [1] The basic airframe proved to be extremely adaptable, capable of taking far more powerful engines and far greater loads than its original role as a short-range interceptor had called for. This was more than offset by the improvements in take-off distance and rate of climb brought about by the constant speed propeller units. The Type D, which was the first specialised ultra long-range version, was the first to require that the work be carried out by Supermarine. The "C" type armament was also rarely used (although not as rare as the "A" armament), due to the extra weight of the added cannon eroding performance and handling. The Supermarine Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire adapted for operation from aircraft carriers.It was analogous in concept to the Hawker Sea Hurricane, a navalised version of the Spitfire's stablemate, the Hawker Hurricane.The name Seafire was derived from the abbreviation of the longer name Sea Spitfire.. Lopes, Eng Mârio Canongia. The engine cowlings had been altered and the angled fin tip had become straight topped with the rudder balance correspondingly reduced in size. Otherwise the wings were Type B. It was calculated that the Speed Spitfire would be able to make the speed runs and land safely before the water and much reduced fuel would run out at about the same time. On 11 November 1937 the modified Messerschmitt Bf 109 V13 (D-IPKY), flown by Herman Wurster, raised the world speed record to 379 mph (610 km/h). Cooling the more powerful engine was achieved using a pressurised water system. A key factor which allowed the continued development of the Spitfire was the development of progressively more powerful and improved engines, starting with the Rolls-Royce Merlin and progressing to the bigger and more powerful Rolls-Royce Griffon. [10], The Mk I PR Type G was the first fighter-reconnaissance version and performed a similar low-level tactical role to the Type E. One oblique F24 camera, with either an eight-inch or 14 inch lens, was fitted facing to port, between fuselage frames 13 and 14. The guns fired through the tape, so they were no longer sealed after combat. Eventually an overall "PRU Blue" became the standard scheme. The Vc also introduced the Type C or "Universal" wing along with the revised main undercarriage; the tops of these wings featured large, bulged fairings to provide clearance for the ammunition feed motors of two Hispano cannon. Whether you're a proffesional angler or a weekend boater creating family memories, the propeller is the key to unlocking your boat's full potential. These could be recognised by the fixed 40 gal (182 l) fuel tank which was fitted under the port wing. [23] These first production Mk Is were able to reach a maximum speed of 362 mph (583 km/h) at 18,500 ft (5,600 m), with a maximum rate of climb of 2,490 ft/min at 10,000 ft (3,000 m). Washington, DC 20560 [56], The Mk I PR Type C carried a total of 144 gal (655 l) of fuel and was the first photo reconnaissance aircraft to reach as far as Kiel. This aircraft was stripped of all unnecessary weight, including all armour plating and the Hispano cannon, while the compression ratio of the Merlin 46 was increased by modifying the cylinder block. All Merlin I to III series engines relied on external electric power to start; a well known sight on RAF fighter airfields was the "trolley acc" (trolley accumulator)[25] which was a set of powerful batteries which could be wheeled up to aircraft. [52] Several of the sub-types which followed were conversions of existing fighter airframes, carried out by the Heston Aircraft Company. This was followed in 1939 by an order for another 200 from Woolston and, only a few months later, another 450. [93], The first Spitfire to be sent overseas in large numbers was the Mk Vc (trop). [79], The VB became the main production version of the Mark Vs. 15 of these were based on the Mk V airframe. [28] In addition, the lower petrol tank was fitted with a fire-resistant covering called "Linatex", which was later replaced with a layer of self-sealing rubber. Two vertical F24 cameras were also installed in the fuselage. Ground Photos copyright Mark Greenmantle . [80], The VB series were the first Spitfires able to carry a range of specially designed slipper-type drop tanks which were fitted underneath the wing centre-section. At the same time the manual hand-pump for operating the undercarriage was replaced by a hydraulic system driven by a pump mounted in the engine bay. [55], In the Mk I PR Type B (also known as Medium Range [MR]) conversions which followed, the F24 camera lenses were upgraded to an eight-inch (203 mm) focal length, giving images up to a third larger in scale. Few, if any, Spitfires "C" Spitfires were built with the eight .303 Browning "A" armament configuration, which was viewed as obsolete by the time the Mk V went into combat. The Mk 18 was a refinement of the Mk XIV. [20][nb 1] For a time the future of the Spitfire was in serious doubt, with the Air Ministry suggesting that the programme be abandoned and that Supermarine change over to building the Bristol Beaufighter under licence. A pale, almost off-white "Camoutint Pink" was used on some low-flying PR Spitfires, including the Type E and some Type G and FR IXs. Because two cannon were seldom fitted, these fairings were later reduced in size to more streamlined shapes. The first Spitfire armed with a single Hispano in each wing was L1007 which was posted to Drem in January 1940 for squadron trials. Improvements to the carburettor also allowed the Spitfire to use zero gravity manoeuvres without any problems with fuel flow. N3117 proved most useful as it was able to photograph targets under weather conditions that would make high altitude photography impossible and experience with this aircraft resulted in the development of the Type G.[61], Mk I PR Type F was an interim "super-long-range" version which entered service in July 1940, pending the Type D. The Type F carried a 30 gal fuel tank under each wing, plus a 29 gal tank in the rear fuselage, as well as having an enlarged oil tank under the nose. The windscreen was redesigned, with a built-in, internal laminated glass, bulletproof panel and optically flat, laminated glass quarter panels. The pilots enjoyed a much clearer reception which was a big advantage with the adoption of Wing formations throughout the RAF in 1941. In this case, the empty port is usually closed off with a rubber plug. An additional 14 gal (63 l) oil tank was fitted in the port wing. This version was also known as the Long Range or LR Spitfire. [65], In November 1942 a Spitfire VB EN830 NX-X of 131 Squadron made a forced landing in a turnip field at Dielament Manor, Trinity, Jersey, under German occupation at the time. He proposed the use of Spitfires with the armament and radios removed and replaced with extra fuel and cameras. With the advent of the Mk IX, few Mk Vc Spitfires saw combat over Europe. The area where the inner guns' ammunition trays had been located, outboard of the cannon bay, was converted into a compartment to accommodate the 60-round drum magazine for the cannon. [31] The Mk II was produced in IIA eight-gun and IIB cannon armed versions. [10] The filler caps were well outboard, between ribs 19 and 20 on the leading edge, because the wing tips were higher than the rest of the wing due to dihedral, and thus the only place a fuel filler cap could be located. [106], Twenty-six Mk XIIIs were converted from either PR Type G, Mk II or Mk Vs. Two designs of these filters can be identified in photos: one had a bulky, squared off filter housing while the other was more streamlined. The new installation meant that the wire running between the aerial mast and rudder could be removed, as could the triangular "prong" on the mast. Please ensure your details are valid and try again. After a misjudged landing it tipped over on its back, fatally injuring the pilot Flt Lt. White. "Fighters of the Cross of Christ: Fighter Squadrons in the Portuguese Air Force, 1940 to 1952". "Spitfire: Simply Superb part three" 1985, p. 189. This conversion carried an F24 camera in a fairing under each wing. 1943–48 was a transition period during which new aircraft entering service were given Arabic numerals for mark numbers but older aircraft retained their Roman numerals. These articles present a brief history of the Spitfire through all of its variants, including many of the defining characteristics of each sub-type. It was soon found that modified Blenheims and Lysanders were easy targets for German fighters and heavy losses were being incurred whenever these aircraft ventured over German territory. The first prototype Mk XIII was tested in March 1943. The propeller used on the Mk.21 was a Rotol hydraulic, type R.14/5F5/2, with 5 wooden blades. World Speed Records and other aviation records were and still are set by the. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 09:08. [62] Late PR Gs were converted from Mk V airframes. Frame 11 is the double thickness fuselage frame at the rear of the cockpit on which the pilot's seat and, from mid-1940, back and head armour was mounted. The last of these Spitfires were taken out of service in 1952. From the 78th production airframe, the Aero Products propeller was replaced by a 350 lb (183 kg) de Havilland 9 ft 8 in (2.97 m) diameter, three-bladed, two-position, metal propeller, which greatly improved take-off performance, maximum speed and the service ceiling. Supermarine quickly produced a set of ailerons covered with light alloy and, in November 1940, these were fitted to a trial Mk I. They were used for low level reconnaissance in preparation for the Normandy landings.[106]. Differences in the "C" wings include a second cannon-bay added directly alongside the first, and the #3 Browning gun being moved slightly outboard from ribs 13 to 14, making the two outer machine guns closer together than in the older "B" type wing. [44], In 1937 ideas about modifying a Spitfire to make an attempt on the world landplane speed record were mooted. In addition the small design staff, which would have to draft the blueprints for the production aircraft, was already working at full stretch. [62] A 29 gal (132 l) fuel tank was fitted just behind the pilot. Neue Veröffentlichungen (Propeller in 1:48) Mehr anzeigen » Beliebte Bausätze (Propeller in 1:48) Mehr … An expansion and overflow vent was fitted to protect the tanks from bursting as the fuel vaporized and expanded from the hot sun beating directly on the thin metal wing skin (which doubled as the walls of the tank). In December 1938, Joseph Smith was instructed to prepare a scheme to equip a Spitfire with a single Hispano mounted under each wing. 13 Hours Since Complete Restoration . [nb 5], The type numbers 332, 335, 336 and 341 were given to versions of the Mk I which were to be modified to meet the requirements of Estonia, Greece, Portugal, and Turkey respectively. Deliveries were very rapid, and they quickly replaced all remaining Mk Is in service, which were then sent to Operational Training Units. Thank you. Further cannon-armed Spitfires, with improvements to the cannon mounts, were later issued to 92 Squadron, but due to the limited magazine capacity it was eventually decided the best armament mix was two cannon and four machine guns (most of these were later converted to the first Mk VBs). Cotton was able to demonstrate that by removing lead weights, which had been installed in the extreme rear fuselage to balance the weight of the constant speed propeller units, it was possible to install cameras with longer focal-length lens in the fuselage. These piped additional heated air into the gun bays. "Merlin II and III Use of +12 lbs./ Boost Pressure – Alterations and Precautions.". The first Spitfire Mk II left the factory in Castle Bromwich as early as August 1940. MERCURY PROPELLERS SHOWCASE. The lateral cameras were aimed by lining up a tiny +, marked on the side of the blister, with a fine black line painted on the port outer aileron. Photo reconnaissance units were given a free hand by the RAF to use their own camouflage schemes and colours, hence many of the earlier PR Spitfires appeared in a variety of schemes, including an overall dark "Royal Blue" for many Mediterranean-based Spitfires. [28][36] The extra boost wasn't damaging as long as the limitations set forth in the pilot's notes were followed. [28] Another modification was the small rear view mirror which was added to the top of the windscreen: an early "shrouded" style was later replaced by a simplified, rectangular, adjustable type. [17], K5054 ended its flying life on 4 September 1939 while being tested at Farnborough. [104], The threat of a sustained high altitude campaign by the Luftwaffe did not materialise and only 100 of the Mk VIs were built by Supermarine. With the success of the trial it was decided to use this version of the Merlin in the Mk II which, it was decided, would be the first version to be produced exclusively by the huge new Lord Nuffield shadow factory at Castle Bromwich. These were known as the Mk IB: Mk Is armed with eight Brownings were retrospectively called the Mk Ia. 1 Fighter Wing RAAF. Its handling was also nearly identical and so it was not put through any performance tests. An extra 29 gal (132 l) fuel tank was installed in the rear fuselage. In 1958 Bristol and Rolls-Royce sold Rotol to the Dowty Group. The fixed, castering tailwheels used Dunlop AH2184 tyres. The lead from the "Trolley Acc" was plugged into a small recess on the starboard side cowling of the Spitfire.
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